Ecology of hedgerows and Invertabrates

Checklist of UK Recorded Braconidae

The Braconidae constitute one of the most species-rich families of insects. Although tropical faunas are still relatively poorly understood at the species level, most taxonomists in this group would agree that a rough, probably highly conservative, estimate of 40-50,000 species worldwide is reasonable as an extrapolation from the current described number of roughly 12,000 species. Among extant […]

Checklist of UK Recorded Cynipoidea, Figitidae, Ibaliidae

Gall wasps Not all parasite wasps are invertabrate parasitoids, In fact the most obvious to the nature watcher are the Cynipidae family which are true parasites of plants. Although their host is totally different from the other families of parasitoids they still inject venom with their eggs which modifies the host tissues to form strangely shaped growths […]

Checklist of UK Recorded Ichneumonidae

Description & Statistics This is one of the largest groups of parasitic insects and by far the most well known hymenopteran parasites, with over 30,000 species known as of 1993 world wide, over 6000 of which can be found in the UK. It probably ranks first in effectiveness of reducing or holding in balance numerous phytophagous pests. […]

Checklist of UK Recorded Mymaridae

Description & Statistics There are circa 86 valid genera and 1,170 species in the cosmopolitan Mymaridae. Important morphological characters include the torulae being closer to the compound eyes than to each other; head bears three sets of sclerotized bars; hind wing petiolate; antenna long in both sexes, female antenna with club (1-3 segmented), male antenna filiform […]

The Ecology of Hedgerows and Plants

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Shepherds purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)(L)

Kingdom Plantae – Plants Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Subclass Dilleniidae – Order Capparales – Family Brassicaceae – Mustard or Cabbage family Genus Capsella Medik. – capsella Species Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. – shepherd’s purse The genus Capsella belongs to the Mustard or Cabbage family Brassicaceae. The most common species is Shepherd’s Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). This hardy annual is of European origin but is now naturalized around the world except in […]

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Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa)

Kingdom Plantae Phylum Anthophyta Class Magnoliopsida Order Rosales Family Rosaceae Genus Prunus Widespread in Britain southwards of Sutherland and Caithness and reaching altitudes of up to 415m in Yorkshire. Elsewhere, this shrub is found in Europe with the exceptions of the far north and north-east, and extends as far east as Iran. It also occurs in south-western Siberia. Blackthorn is related […]

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Lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria)

Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Ranunculales Family: Ranunculaceae Genus: Ranunculus Species: R. ficaria Lesser celandine, (Ranunculus ficaria, syn. Ficaria grandiflora Robert Ficaria verna Huds.) is a low-growing, hairless perennial plant, with fleshy dark green, heart-shaped leaves. According to Gilbert White, a diarist writing around 1800 in the Hampshire village of Selborne, the plants came out on February 21st, but it is […]

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Species composition of hedgerows and verges have an infinite variety where not only are no 2 the same, but they are different every 100 yards or sometimes every few yards.